|Explanation||Hans Christian Ørstedt||Philipp Reis||Alessandro Volta||Enrico Fermi||Mario Corbino|
|Ettore Majorana||Luigi Galvani||Marija Aleksaite-Gimbutiene||Carl Auer von Welsbach|
Carl Auer von Welsbach
Dr. Carl Freiherr Auer von Welsbach was born in Vienna Sept. 9th 1858, son of Therese and Alois Ritter Auer von Welsbach ( his father was director of the Imperial printing office the "Staatsdruckerei").
1869-77: went to the secondary school in Mariahilf, then changed to the secondary school in Josefstadt.
1877-78: military service, became a second lieutenant.
1878-80: Inscribed into the technical University of Vienna; studies in math, general organic and inorganic chemistry, technical physics and thermodynamics with the Professors Winkler, Bauer, Reitlinger; and Pierre.
1880-82: Changed to the University of Heidelberg; lectures on inorganic experimental chemistry and Lab. experiments with Prof. Bunsen, introduction to spectral analysis and the history of chemistry, mineralogy and physics.
5th of Feb. 1882: Promotion to Doctor of Philosophy at the Ruperta-Carola-University in Heidelberg.
1882: Return to Vienna as unpaid Assistant in Prof. Lieben`s laboratory; work with chemical separation methods for investigations on rare earth elements.
1882-1884: Publications: " Ueber die Erden des Gadolinits von Ytterby", "Ueber die Seltenen Erden".
1885: The first separation of the element "Didymium" with help from a newly developed separation method from himself, based on the fractioned crystalisation of a Didym-ammonium nitrat solution. After the characteristical colouring, Auer gave the green components the name Praseodymium, the pink components the name Neodidymium. In time the latter element was more commonly known as Neodymium.
1885-1892: Work on gas mantle for the incandescent lighting.
18th of Sept. 1885: The patenting of a gas burner with a "Actinophor" incandescent mantle made up of 60% magnesium oxide, 20% lanthanum oxide and 20% yttrium oxide; in the same year, the magnesium oxide part was replaced with zirconium oxide and the constitution of a second patent with reference to the additional use of the light body in a spirits flame.
9th of April 1886: Introduction the name "Gasgluehlicht" through the Journalist Motiz Szeps after the successful presentation from the Actinophors in the lower Austrian trade union ; regular production of the impregnation liquid, called "Fluid", at the Chemical Institute.
1887: The acquisition of the factory Würth & Co. for chemical-pharmaceutical products in Atzgersdorf and the industrial production of the light bodies.
1889: The beginning of sales problems because of the defaults with the earlier incandescent mantle, ie. it`s fragility, the short length of use, as well as having an unpleasant, cold, green coloured light , and the relatively high price. The factory in Atzgersdorf closes.
1890: First experiments with light bodies for Thorium
oxide mixtures, from incentives from his collaborator Dr. Haittinger.
1891: Patenting of the incandescent mantle out of 99%
Thorium oxide and 1% Cerium oxide, at that period of time, because of
the light emission it was a direct competition for the electric carbon-filament
lamp. The resuming of production in Atzgersdorf near Vienna and the
quick spreading of the incandescent mantle because of their high duration.
The beginning of a competition with the electric lighting.
15th of Jan. 1890: The taking out of a patent for two
manufacturing methods for filaments.
1898: The acquiring of a industrial property in Treibach and the beginning of the experimentation and discovery work at this location. The taking out of a patent for the metallic-filament lamp with Osmium filament.
1899: Married Marie Nimpfer in Helgoland.
1900: The beginning of the development of a separations method for the elements "Ytter- earths" based or depending on the partial solubility of the oxalate.
1902: Market introduction of the "Auer-Oslight"
the first industrial finished Osmium metallic-filament lamp using the
1903: The taking out of a patent for his pyrophoric alloys
(by scratching with hard and sharp surfaces a splinter which could ignite
itself.) In the patent specification 70% Cerium and 30% Iron was given
as an optimal compound.
30th of March 1905: A report to the "Akademie der Wissenschaften" in Vienna that the results of the spectroscopic analysis show that Ytterbium is made up of two elements. Auer named the elements after the stars Aldebaranium and Cassiopeium. He ommitted the publication of the attained spectras and the ascertained atomic weights.
1907: The founding of the "Treibacher Chemische Werke GesmbH" in Treibach-Althofen for the production of Ferrocerium- lighter flints under the trade name "Original Auermetall".
The publication of the spectras and the atomic weights
of both new, from Ytterbium separated elements, in the completion of
his report to the Academie der Wissenschaften.
1908: The solution of the electrolysis of fused salts (cerium chloride) problem, at which the minerals Cerit and Allanite are used as source substances.
1909: The adaption of the procedure, from his collaborator,
Dr.Fattinger, to be able to use the Monazitsand residue out of the incandescent
mantle production, for the production of cerium metal for the lighter
1909: The International Atomic weight Commission decided in favour of Urbain´s publication instead of Auer´s because Urbain handed it in earlier. The Commission of the term from Urbain Neoytterbium- known today as Ytterbium and Lutetium for the new elements.
1910-1924: Search for other rare earth elements such as
the element with the number 61 on the chemical elements table.
1922: A report on his spectroscopic discoveries to the "Akademie der Wissenschaften" in Vienna.
1929:World-wide production of ligther flints reached 100,000 kg.
Carl Auer von Welsbach died at the age of 70 on April 8th 1929.