Explanation Hans Christian Ørstedt Philipp Reis Alessandro Volta Enrico Fermi Mario Corbino
Ettore Majorana Luigi Galvani Marija Aleksaite-Gimbutiene Carl Auer von Welsbach

 

Luigi Galvani - Liceo Michele Amari Giare
1737 - 1798

 

Experiments with piles

galvanic cell experiments - 1^ electrolytic cell

Distilled water

300

ml

Distilled water

300

ml

Distilled water

300

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 Quantity

3,6

ml

H2SO4 Quantity

3,6

ml

H2SO4 Quantity

3,6

ml

%  H2SO4

1,16

%

%  H2SO4

1,16

%

%  H2SO4

1,16

%

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

voltage

990

mV

voltage

220

mV

voltage

480

mV

Current

 

mA

Current

 

mA

Current

 

mA

Anode -

 Zinc

 

Anode -

Zinc

 

Anode -

Zinc

 

Cathode +

Copper

 

Cathode +

Aluminium

 

Cathode +

Lead

 

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

  H2SO4  is put into a beaker .

galvanic cell experiments - 1^ electrolytic cell

Distilled water

300

ml

Distilled water

300

ml

Distilled water

300

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 al 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 al 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 Quantity

3,6

ml

H2SO4 Quantity

3,6

ml

H2SO4 Quantity

3,6

ml

% H2SO4

1,16

%

%  H2SO4

1,16

%

%  H2SO4

1,16

%

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

voltage

680

mV

voltage

420

mV

voltage

510

mV

Current

 

mA

Current

 

mA

Current

 

mA

Anode -

Copper

 

Anode -

Copper

 

Anode -

Lead

 

Cathode +

Aluminium

 

Cathode +

Lead

 

Cathode +

Aluminium

 

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

 Copper anode is put into a container with

galvanic cell experiments - 2^ electrolytic cell

Distilled water

300

ml

Distilled water

300

ml

Distilled water

300

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 Quantity

3,6

ml

H2SO4 Quantity

3,6

ml

H2SO4 Quantity

3,6

ml

% H2SO4

1,16

%

%  H2SO4

1,16

%

% H2SO4

1,16

%

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

voltage

930

mV

voltage

380

mV

voltage

470

mV

Current

 

mA

Current

 

mA

Current

 

mA

Anode -

Zinc

 

Anode -

Zinc

 

Anode -

Zinc

 

Cathode +

Copper

 

Cathode +

aluminium

 

Cathode +

Lead

 

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

Meausring the voltage produced

  

 

galvanic cell experiments - 2^ electrolytic cell

Distilled water

300

ml

Distilled water

300

ml

Distilled water

300

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

10

ml

H2SO4 quantity

3,6

ml

H2SO4 quantity

3,6

ml

H2SO4 quantity

3,6

ml

%  H2SO4

1,16

%

%  H2SO4

1,16

%

% H2SO4

1,16

%

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

voltage

680

mV

voltage

460

mV

voltage

220

mV

Current

 

mA

Current

 

mA

Current

 

mA

Anode -

Copper

 

Anode -

Copper

 

Anode -

Lead

 

Cathode +

Aluminium

 

Cathode +

Lead

 

Cathode +

Aluminium

 

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

 

 Cathode and anode  are connected  to the tester of the current

galvanic cell experiments – other experience

Distilled water

640

ml

Distilled water

640

ml

 

 

 

H2SO4 at 36%

360

ml

H2SO4 at 36%

360

ml

 

 

 

H2SO4 quantity

129,6

ml

H2SO4 quantity

F.sc. 200

ml

 

 

 

%  H2SO4

12,96

%

%  H2SO4

12,96%

%

 

 

 

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

 

 

 

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

 

 

 

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mA

 

 

 

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

 

 

 

voltage

912

mV

voltage

450

mV

 

 

 

Current

80

mA

Current

2

mA

 

 

 

Anode -

Zinc

 

Anode -

Iron

 

 

 

 

Cathode +

Copper

 

Cathode +

Copper

 

 

 

 

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

 

 

 

Measurement of the voltage.

Meanwhile hydrogen is produced inside the upper glass container

 



Experiment  with Volta pile

Copper foil/ thickness

0,5

mm

Copper foil/ thickness

0,5

mm

Copper foil/ thickness

0,5

mm

Copper foil/side

50

mm

Copper foil/side

50

mm

Copper foil/side

50

mm

Copper foil/ area

2500

mm˛

Copper foil/ area

2500

mm˛

Copper foil/ area

2500

mm˛

Zinc  foil/ thickness

0,5

mm

Zinc  foil/ thickness

0,5

mm

Zinc  foil/ thickness

0,5

mm

Zinc foil/side

50

mm

Zinc foil/side

50

mm

Zinc foil/side

50

mm

Zinc foil /area

2500

mm˛

Zinc foil /area

2500

mm˛

Zinc foil /area

2500

mm˛

Filter/thickness

3

mm

Filter/thickness

3

mm

Filter/thickness

3

mm

Filter/side

50

mm

Filter/side

50

mm

Filter/side

50

mm

Filter/area

2500

mm˛

Filter/area

2500

mm˛

Filter/area

2500

mm˛

Foil sequence

Cu/flt/

Zn

Pcs

Foil sequence

Cu/flt/

Zn/flt
/Cu/flt/

   Zn

Pcs

Foil sequence

Cu/Zn/flt/Cu
/Zn/flt/Cu/Zn

Pcs

Filter soaked with H2SO4

10

ml

Filter soaked with H2SO4

10

ml

Filter soaked with H2SO4

10

ml

H2SO4 Concentration

36

%

H2SO4 Concentration

36

%

H2SO4 Concentration

36

%

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester measurement

F.sc. 20

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 20

mA

tester measurement

F.sc. 20

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

Measured potential difference

885

mV

Measured potential difference

991

mV

Measured potential difference

832

mV

Measured current

1,2

mA

Measured current

6,23

mA

Measured current

2,83

mA

Anode -

Zinc

 

Anode -

Zinc

 

Anode -

Zinc

 

Cathode +

Copper

 

Cathode

Copper

 

Cathode +

Copper

 

Time

10

mins

Time

10

mins

Time

10

mins

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daniell pile experiment

Copper foil/ thickness

1

mm

Copper foil/ thickness

1

mm

Copper foil/ thickness

1

mm

Copper foil/ height

105

mm

Copper foil/ height

105

mm

Copper foil/ height

105

mm

Copper foil/ width

30

mm

Copper foil/ width

30

mm

Copper foil/ width

30

mm

Copper foil /area

3150

mm˛

Copper foil /area

3150

mm˛

Copper foil /area

3150

mm˛

Usable copper area in solution

1650

mm˛

Usable copper area in solution

1650

mm˛

Usable copper area in solution

1650

mm˛

Diluted Solution:

======

======

Diluted Solution:

======

======

Diluted Solution:

======

======

- Distilled water

1500

ml

- Distilled water

1500

ml

- Distilled water

1500

ml

- Copper sulphate

15

g

- Copper sulphate

15

g

- Copper sulphate

15

g

- Concentration

1

%

- Concentration

1

%

- Concentration

1

%

Concentration

Solution :

======

======

Concentration

Solution :

======

======

Concentration

Solution :

======

======

- Distilled water

100

ml

- Distilled water

100

ml

- Distilled water

100

ml

- copper sulphate

10

g

- copper sulphate

20

g

- copper sulphate

30

g

- Concentration

10

%

- Concentration

20

%

- Concentration

30

%

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mV

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mV

tester measurement

F.sc. 200

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester sensibility

1

mV

tester measurement

F.sc. 50

microA

tester measurement

F.sc. 50

microA

tester measurement

F.sc. 50

microA

tester sensibility

1

microA

tester sensibility

1

microA

tester sensibility

1

microA

Measured voltage

10

mV

Measured voltage

22

mV

Measured voltage

55

mV

Measured current

3

microA

Measured current

5

microA

Measured current

10

microA

Anode -

Copper

 

Anode -

Copper

 

Anode -

Copper

 

Cathode +

Copper

 

Cathode +

Copper

 

Cathode +

Copper

 

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

Time

5

mins

Daniell pile experiment -  other experiment

Copper foil/ thickness

1

mm

 Diluted solution  (Al):

======

======

tester measurement

F.sc. 20

mA

Copper foil / height

105

mm

-  distilled water

1500

ml

tester sensibility

0,01

mA

Copper foil / width

30

mm

- Copper sulphate

30

g

Measured voltage

745

mV

Copper foil / area

3150

mm˛

- Concentration

2

%

Measured current

3,75

mA

 Usable copper area in solution

1650

mm˛

concentration solution(Cu):

======

======

Anode -

aluminium

 

Aluminium foil / thickness

1

mm

- distilled water

100

ml

Cathode +

copper

 

Aluminium foil / height

105

mm

- Copper sulphate

20

g

Time

5

mins

Aluminium foil / width

30

mm

- Concentration

20

%

 

 

 

Aluminium foil / area

3150

mm˛

Tester measurement

F.sc. 2

V

 

 

 

Usable aluminium area in solution

1650

mm˛

tester sensibility

1

mV

 

 

 

======================================================================

 

 


Last update 11/06/02
by Liceo Scientifico “Amari”  Linguaglossa